Scope Of Psychology
From the definition of psychology now it might be clear to you that psychology addresses a variety of issues related to the mental and behavioural functioning of an individual. Such a study helps us to develop a basic understanding of human nature and facilitates us to deal with some personal and social problems.
The study of human beings starts with the functioning of biological systems especially the nervous system. Under jumpy central system psychology studies the functions of various parts of the brain which regulate our feelings, emotions and thinking. Within the autonomic nervous system, the role of hormones and neurotransmitters in determining our behaviour is essential. Also psychology studies as to how a given socio-cultural environment interacts with natural biological, intellectual and social attributes of the child and facilitates the healthy development of the child.
As a living organism, you encounter a lot of sensory input every moment. Your task is not only to process that information but to store and retrieve it when it is required to be used. Attention and perception help to process information. Memory helps us to register, retain and retrieve data, and thinking provides us with the ability to manipulate and improve the stored data. Within psychology, all these are studied in the domain of higher mental processes or cognition.
In your life, you must have come across many persons who have reached the highest level of accomplishment. But such a feat is not attained at once; it is the result of continuous learning in which the individual acquires the necessary skills and competencies through regular practice. Psychology helps us to understand the processes involved in reaching this high level of accomplishment.
To understand the purpose behind any behaviour psychologists uses the concept of motivation. It primarily focuses on the investment of mental energy and consistency of effort towards achieving the set goals. The various shades of feelings such as anger, fear, love, joy, and sadness which we experience during our life are studied within the realm of emotion.
You will certainly agree that no two individuals are the same regarding their physical attributes such as height, weight, skin colour or facial features as well as psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, temperament and interest. An understanding of these and other aspects of individual differences facilitates the psychologist to select the right person for the right job and to provide guidance and counselling for various matters of personal as well as professional concern. The understanding of individual differences also helps the psychologist to differentiate between normative (customary, accepted) and abnormal (deviant, unusual) behaviours.
Thus psychology as a discipline has a vast scope. It not only studies human beings across the lifespan but also tries to explore mental processes and potentials to facilitate achieving a better quality of life.